The cathedral's walls are painted with with frescoes of the mid XVIth century. Having appeared after restoration works carried out after the Fire of 1547 he murals underwent restoration several times. First time, the frescoes were opened from under later layers in 1980-1984, and are the most ancient complex of murals of the Kremlin monuments. Besides the traditional mural compositions, there are images and scenes, unique for that time, i.e. those illustrating the Apocalypse and the Tree of Jesse.

Illustrations of Apocalypse, one of the most ancient Evangelical books, cover the northern, southern and western walls of the cathedral as well as the vaults under the gallery. The traditional composition of the Judgment Day at the western wall belongs to the same series.

The Tree of Jesse is a genealogical tree of Christ based on Bible texts, which is a key composition of murals of the north-western gallery. The composition is remarkable because of multitudinous depictions of Antique philosophers: Virgil, Homer and Plutarch.

The system of murals include images of Byzantine emperors on pillars and images of Russian princes either in the gallery and on.

Over the entrance to the northern cathedral's gallery there is a fresco image of Saviour Almighty. The Trinity composition should be marked among the western gallery's ones.